善恶之源 | Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil by Paul Bloom

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2019年11月18日08:18:56善恶之源 | Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil by Paul Bloom已关闭评论 271 次浏览
善恶之源 | Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil by Paul Bloom

From John Locke to Sigmund Freud, philosophers and psychologists have long believed that we begin life as blank moral slates. Many of us take for granted that babies are born selfish and that it is the role of society—and especially parents—to transform them from little sociopaths into civilized beings. In Just Babies, Paul Bloom argues that humans are in fact hardwired with a sense of morality. Drawing on groundbreaking research at Yale, Bloom demonstrates that, even before they can speak or walk, babies judge the goodness and badness of others’ actions; feel empathy and compassion; act to soothe those in distress; and have a rudimentary sense of justice.

Still, this innate morality is limited, sometimes tragically. We are naturally hostile to strangers, prone to parochialism and bigotry. Bringing together insights from psychology, behavioral economics, evolutionary biology, and philosophy, Bloom explores how we have come to surpass these limitations. Along the way, he examines the morality of chimpanzees, violent psychopaths, religious extremists, and Ivy League professors, and explores our often puzzling moral feelings about sex, politics, religion, and race.

婴儿有道德感吗?我们是如何成为有道德之人的?理性思考对道德决策来说无足轻重吗?保罗·布卢姆把心理学、行为经济学、进化生物学和哲学的深刻思想融为一炉,力图探索我们究竟如何超越先天道德的局限。与此同时,他还研究了黑猩猩、心理变态者和常春藤教授们的道德,探索了我们对性、政治、宗教和种族问题的令人困扰的道德感觉。

作者引述了美国耶鲁大学的开创性研究,证明婴儿早在能开口讲话和行走之前,就有能力判断他人行为的好坏,就能产生共情和同情,就能产生原始的正义感。但人类的先天道德仍然十分有限,有时候还会酿成悲剧,比如我们天生就仇视陌生人,也容易产生偏执和狭隘。布卢姆还指出理性与道德判断的紧密关系,理性和思索能让我们作出道德决定,比如奴隶制是错误的。归根结底,我们可以通过想象、同情和我们人类独有的理性思考能力,超越我们生来就具备的原始道德情感,超越婴儿的局限。

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