【TED】一个罕见的星系挑战了我们对宇宙的认知 | A rare galaxy that’s challenging our understanding of the universe

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2019年10月23日07:55:16【TED】一个罕见的星系挑战了我们对宇宙的认知 | A rare galaxy that’s challenging our understanding of the universe已关闭评论 255 次浏览
【TED】一个罕见的星系挑战了我们对宇宙的认知 | A rare galaxy that's challenging our understanding of the universe

发现一个新的星系并以你的名字命名它是一种什么感觉?天体物理学家和TED研究员布奇 · 穆特鲁-帕克迪,在这个简短的演讲中向我们介绍了她的团队令人惊喜的发现:一种神秘的全新的星系。

中英文对照字幕

There are more than a trillion galaxies in the universe. And my team discovered an extremely rare one, a galaxy that doesn't look quite like anything observed before. This galaxy is so peculiar, that it challenges our theories and our assumptions about how the universe works.

宇宙中有超过一万亿个星系。而我的团队发现了极其罕见的一个, 这个星系与我们见过的其他星系都不同。这个星系是如此的特别, 以至于动摇了我们对于宇宙运行规律的理论和设想。

The majority of the galaxies are spiral, similar to our own Milky Way. We have strong theories about how these common galaxies form and evolve. But we don't understand how rare galaxies form and evolve. An especially puzzling rare case is Hoag's Object. It has a very symmetric central body surrounded by a circular outer ring, with nothing visible connecting them. Hoag-type galaxies are among the rarest types of galaxies currently known. There are fewer than one in 1,000 galaxies. It's a mystery how the stars in the outer ring are just floating there in such an orderly manner. That's interesting, right? Hold on. Things are about to get more mysterious.

大多数星系都是螺旋状的, 就像我们的银河系一样。我们可以很好地解释这些 常见星系的起源和演化过程。但是我们并不理解其他 罕见星系的形成和演变过程。霍格星系就是这样的一个 令人费解而罕见的例子。它由一个非常对称的中心天体 和环绕它的圆形外环组成, 而这两部分之间并没有 可见的物质连接它们。霍格星系属于最罕见的星系类型之一。他们只占星系总数的不到千分之一。外环中的恒星如此整齐的 漂浮在那里的原因 依旧是一个谜。非常有意思,对吧?别急。还有更加神秘的事情。

The galaxy that my team discovered is even rarer and much more complex than that. You know, sometimes, you search and search for these objects, and you find nothing. But sometimes, it just appears in the background, when you are not even looking for it. This system looks very similar to Hoag's Object, with its central body and circular outer ring. We got very excited and thought we discovered another Hoag's Object. But my research showed this is an entirely new galaxy type, now commonly referred to as "Burçin's Galaxy."

我们团队所发现的星系比霍格星系 更加罕见,也更复杂。有时,我们不停地寻找一些天体, 却什么也找不到。但也有时候,它就会在你甚至 没有刻意找它的时候, 出现在背景里。这个星系与霍格星系非常相似, 也有中心天体和圆形的外环。我们当时非常激动, 以为又发现了一个霍格星系。但是我的研究表明, 这其实是一种全新的星系,大家现在叫它“”布奇星系”。(布奇是演讲者的名字)

We will not be visiting this galaxy anytime soon. It is approximately 359 million light years away from Earth. You may think this is far. Well, actually, this is one of the nearby galaxies. I study this object in different light -- in ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared. Small details on our body, like a scar or wrinkles, tell the story of our lives. Similarly, a galaxy's structure in different light can help us trace back their origin and evolution.

我们要过很久才能探访这个星系。它与地球的距离大概有 三亿五千九百万光年。你可能觉得这很远。其实这个星系已经离我们相对很近了。我对这个星系在不同的 电磁波长下的样子进行了研究—— 包括了紫外线,可见光,和近红外线。我们身体上的细微痕迹, 比如一个伤痕或者皱纹, 可以透露我们的生活经历。同样的,星系结构在不同电磁波长下的样子。也可以帮助我们回溯它的起源和演变过程。

How do I look for these details? I model the bright central body and remove my model from the image to check for any hidden features, because a bright structure in a galaxy may blind our views of faint features, just like using sunglasses when you are blinded by the intense light.

怎么寻找这些痕迹呢?我建立了那个明亮的中心天体的模型, 并把这个模型从星系图像中移除, 然后就可以寻找星系的不明显的特征, 因为星系中明亮的部分 可能会遮盖一些暗淡的细节,这就像我们在强光刺眼时会戴墨镜一样。

The result was a big surprise. This galaxy doesn't just have an outer ring, it has an additional, diffused inner ring. We were having a hard time explaining the origin of the outer ring in Hoag-type galaxies. Now we also need to explain this mysterious second ring.

研究的结果令我们非常惊喜。这个星系不仅有一个外环, 还有一个稀薄的内环。我们要解释霍格星系外环的形成过程已经很困难了。现在我们还要解释这个神秘的内环。

There is currently no known mechanism that can explain the existence of an inner ring in such a peculiar galaxy. So the discovery of Burçin's Galaxy clearly highlights the gap in our knowledge of galaxy evolution. Further research into how this extremely rare galaxy was formed can provide us with new clues on how the universe works. This discovery tells us that we still have a lot to learn, and we should keep looking deeper and deeper in space and keep searching for the unknown.

目前没有任何理论可以解释这个如此特别的 星系中内环的存在。所以,布奇星系的发现凸显了我们的星系演化理论的不足。对这个及其罕见星系 形成过程的后续研究, 可以为我们理解宇宙的 运行机制提供新的线索。这个发现表明我们还有很长的路要走, 我们应该继续对太空进行更深入的研究,并继续探索未知的现象。

Thank you.

谢谢。

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